HOW PROTIST (EUGLENA, PARAMECIUM & OMEBA) & FUNGI OBTAIN ENERGY
6.L.5A.1 Analyze and interpret data from observations to compare how the structures of protists (including euglena, paramecium, and amoeba) and fungi allow them to obtain energy and explore their environment.
*Note that Weeks 3 & 4 Booklets are within this same standard, so they are on this same page.
It is essential that the student be able to distinguish between specialized structures that allow protists and fungi to obtain energy and explore their environment.
Protists are organisms that are classified into the Kingdom Protista. Although there is a lot of variety within the protists, they do share some common characteristics.
● Protists are usually single celled organisms.
● Live in moist environments.
● Vary in the ways they move and obtain energy.
Protists obtain their energy in several ways.
● Animal-like protists ingest or absorb food after capturing or trapping it.
● Plant-like protists produce food through photosynthesis.
● Fungus-like protists obtain their food by external digestion either as decomposers or as parasites.
● Some protists have both autotrophic and heterotrophic characteristics.
Protists have three main ways to move (locomotion) :
● Flagellum (flagella) - a long whip-like tail used to move and/or catch food. An example of a flagellated protist is the Euglena.
● Cilia - small hair-like projections on the surface (cell membrane) of the cell used to sweep food into mouth-like structures and/or beat them in rhythm to move. An example of a ciliated protist is a paramecium.
● Pseudopod – (false foot) a finger-like projection of the cell membrane and cytoplasm used to catch food and/or movement. An example of a protist with pseudopod is the amoeba.
Fungi are classified into the Kingdom Fungi. This includes microorganisms such as yeast and molds as well as multicellular organisms such as mushrooms.
There are three main ways Fungi obtain energy
● Saprophytic - Fungi that get their energy from decaying organic matter.
● Parasitic - Fungi that feed on other living organisms (host) and harm the host.
● Symbiotic - Fungi that feed on other living organisms (host) but do not harm the host. In many cases the host benefits from the fungi.
In most cases, fungi are not mobile organisms.
Fungi can be categorized based on their fruiting structures (structures for reproduction and spore dispersal).
• There are many other examples of protists that use the various methods mentioned above to move or obtain energy. Euglena, paramecium, and amoeba are only a small sample.
• In order to observe the movement and structure of protists, students could be introduced to basic microscopy and observe the organisms first-hand.
• Other cells outside of Protista that have flagellum (many bacteria or sperm cells), cilia (cells in the trachea), and pseudopods (white blood cells).
• Fungi are a very diverse group of organisms. Students may develop and use models that show the methods of fungal reproduction and spore dispersal.
The objective of this indicator is to analyze and interpret data from observations to compare how the structures of protists (including euglena, paramecium, and amoeba) and fungi allow them to obtain energy and explore their environment. Therefore, the primary focus of assessment should be for students to analyze and interpret data from informational texts, observations, measurements, or investigations that supports the claim that protists and fungi have specialized structures that allow them to obtain energy and explore their environment. This could include, but is not limited to, students observing videos of protists and constructing 2-D models to
explain how the specialized structures of protists that allow for movement and obtaining energy. Students can also analyze informational text and use that as evidence to argue whether a sample fungus is aprophytic, parasitic, or symbiotic. These fungal examples can be diagrams, images, or live specimens.
In addition to analyze and interpret data, students should ask questions; plan and carry out investigations; use mathematics and computational thinking; engage in argument from evidence; construct explanations; develop and use models; obtain, evaluate, and communicate information; and construct devices or define solutions.
MICROSCOPIC LIFE BLENDED LEARNING LESSON (embedded into the booklet above)
EVIDENCE OF LIFE -thanks to Briana Everhart & Tiffany Whiting of FMS for taking this their iPhones through the microscope!
PROTISTS SORT MAP-thanks to Briana Everhart (FMS) for making this for us! :)
Protists & Fungi Review Video: Shout out of thanks to Danielle Hamilton and her students at W.P.M.S.