STRUCTURAL ADAPTATIONS/PROCESSES FLOWERING PLANTS USE FOR DEFENSE, SURVIVAL & REPRODUCTION
6.L.5B.3 Develop and use models to compare structural adaptations and processes that flowering plants use for defense, survival and reproduction.
Structural Adaptations for Reproduction
Parts of the flowering plant that function in reproduction include:
● Flowers produce seeds.
● Many flowers contain both male and female organs needed to produce new flowers.
● Flower petals are often colorful or have a scent to attract insects and other animals.
● The male organ of a flower that has an anther on a stalk (filament).
● The anther produces the pollen that contains the sperm cells.
● The female organ of the flower that contains
○ The ovary, which contains the ovules where the egg cells are produced,
○ The stigma, which is the sticky top where pollen grains land, and
○ The style, which is a stalk down which the pollen tube grows after pollination has taken place.
● The ovule that contains the fertilized egg (embryo) from which new plants are formed.
● A fruit that is formed from the ovary often protects them.
Plants use a variety of parts to produce new plants such as:
● These are all types of underground stems.
● The “eyes” or buds of tubers, for example potatoes, grow into roots and shoots to produce a new plant.
● Bulbs, for example onions, are big buds made of a stem and special types of leaves.
● These are all types of stems that run along the ground.
● New strawberries or some ivy grow from the tips of runners.
● Many lawn grasses grow from runners.
● When a piece of cut stem is planted, roots may form from the cutting, and then a full plant develops.
● Sugar cane and pineapple are examples of plants grown from stem cuttings.
● Some fruit trees and bushes send up “suckers” or new shoots from the roots.
● Some plants have roots that can produce new plants from root pieces, such as a sweet potato.
Plant cells have larger vacuoles compared to animal cells to store more food and water. This helps plants to store up the water they need in order to perform the process of photosynthesis.
The objective of this indicator is to develop and use models to compare structural adaptations and processes that flowering plants use for defense, survival and reproduction. Therefore, the primary focus of assessment should be for students to construct models that represent (or use simulations to investigate), compare, and contrast structural adaptations and processes flowering plants use for survival. This could include but is not limited to students creating models to describe how various structures of flowering plants help them to grow, develop, reproduce, and survive.
In addition to develop and use models, students should ask questions; plan and carry out investigations; analyze and interpret data; use mathematics and computational thinking; engage in argument from evidence; construct explanations; obtain, evaluate, and communicate information; and construct devices or define solutions
Plant Defenses and Review