ENERGY TRANSFER BETWEEN POTENTIAL & KINETIC ENERGY & THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
6.P.3A.2 Develop and use models to exemplify the conservation of energy as it is transformed from kinetic to potential (gravitational and elastic) and vice versa.
The Law of Conservation of Energy
● The Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed.
● Energy can be transformed from one form into another, but the total amount of energy never changes.
Mechanical energy transformations
● When water is behind a dam, it has potential energy. The potential energy of the water changes to kinetic energy in the movement of the water as it flows over the dam.
● When a rubber band is stretched, kinetic energy is transformed into potential energy. The further back you stretch the rubber band, the greater potential energy, and the more energy that will be transferred as kinetic energy. When a stretched rubber band is released its potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy as the rubber band moves.
● When a book is lifted to a shelf, kinetic energy is transformed into potential energy. If the book falls off the shelf the potential energy is transformed to kinetic energy.
Energy is conserved during energy transformations
● Transformations may occur between any of the various types of energy but energy itself is never lost.
● The potential energy that a book on a shelf has is from the kinetic energy it took to lift the book to the shelf.
● A swing pendulum (such as a Newton’s cradle) also demonstrates how energy is conserved as it changes forms.
○ Kinetic energy is used to pull a ball back; this energy is transformed into potential energy.
○ The ball is released and the ball swings back toward the other three balls (kinetic energy).
○ The moving ball strikes the stationary ball and the kinetic energy is transferred from one ball to the next.
○ The last ball swings away from the others because of the kinetic energy that was transferred to the ball.
○ If this experiment is repeated by pulling back two balls, then two balls will swing off of the other end.
○ This shows conservation of energy because one ball has enough potential energy to cause one ball to move; two balls cause two to moves, and so on.
● Although energy is not lost during energy transformations, some is transformed into heat and friction. This means that all of the potential energy stored in a book is not going to be transformed into kinetic energy.
Study Jams Videos (for PC or Mac)
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Rubber Band & Kinetic Energy
Energy Transformation Examples
How Does a Light Bulb Work?
Energy and Energy Transformations
Bill Nye the Science Guy- Energy
McDougal Litell Text Book Reference Pages
ENERGY UNIT VOCABULARY
Energy Fill-in-the-Blank Study Guide Booklet Pages 1-4 Video and Slideshow
SCIENCE WEBSITE RESOURCES
Gizmo Exploration- Law of Conservation of Energy
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View "Energy Conversions" Gizmo
Discovery Education- Law of Conservation of Energy
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> Law of Conservation of Energy (2:20)
> The Law of Conservation of Energy (4:35)
> Testing the Law of Conservation of Energy (1:21)
Discovery Education- Energy Transformations
> Transformations of Energy (2:59)
ADDITIONAL CLASSROOM RESOURCES
Air Cannon Demo
What are the types of energy transfers that occur by using the air cannon?
SONGS & CHANTS
Conservation of Energy Song
Forms of Energy
The Law of Conservation of Energy
Law of Conservation of Energy
Understanding POTENTIAL & KINETIC Energy
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