Practice 9: Construct Devices or Design Solutions
The engineering process is broken down into six component steps, each of which has an analogous counterpart in the science practices.
1. Ask questions to identify problems or needs.
Engineers figure out what problems or needs exist and if they are, in fact, genuine in nature, that is they are real problems and not assumed.
2. Ask questions about the criteria and constraints of the devices or solutions.
Engineers further investigate the nature of the problem or need they are attempting to solve in order to identify what scientific concepts will be applied, what limitations and constraints might affect the design of a solution or device, and what other parameters need to be accounted for in solving the problem or need.
3. Generate and communicate ideas for possible devices or solutions.
Engineers design and communicate proposed devices or solutions that they predict will address problem or need as defined by the identified constraints and criteria.
4. Build and test devices or solutions.
Engineers build and test full-scale prototypes or models of prototypes of devices that will meet the need or solve the problem. In the case of solutions, engineers test their proposed solutions or tests their solutions through the use of models. In both cases, the intent is to gather data to evaluate the effectiveness of their design.
5. Determine if the devices or solutions solved the problem and refine the design if needed.
Engineers analyze and interpret the test data to determine if their devices or solutions solved the problems or met the needs. If necessary, devices or solutions are refined based on the analysis of the data and tested again.
6. Communicate the results.
Engineers communicate the results of their design tests, using evidence to support claims that their design was effective at solving the problem or meeting the need.
1. Ask questions to identify problems or needs.
Engineers figure out what problems or needs exist and if they are, in fact, genuine in nature, that is they are real problems and not assumed.
2. Ask questions about the criteria and constraints of the devices or solutions.
Engineers further investigate the nature of the problem or need they are attempting to solve in order to identify what scientific concepts will be applied, what limitations and constraints might affect the design of a solution or device, and what other parameters need to be accounted for in solving the problem or need.
3. Generate and communicate ideas for possible devices or solutions.
Engineers design and communicate proposed devices or solutions that they predict will address problem or need as defined by the identified constraints and criteria.
4. Build and test devices or solutions.
Engineers build and test full-scale prototypes or models of prototypes of devices that will meet the need or solve the problem. In the case of solutions, engineers test their proposed solutions or tests their solutions through the use of models. In both cases, the intent is to gather data to evaluate the effectiveness of their design.
5. Determine if the devices or solutions solved the problem and refine the design if needed.
Engineers analyze and interpret the test data to determine if their devices or solutions solved the problems or met the needs. If necessary, devices or solutions are refined based on the analysis of the data and tested again.
6. Communicate the results.
Engineers communicate the results of their design tests, using evidence to support claims that their design was effective at solving the problem or meeting the need.
What is Super Important About This Goal?
> Understand that technological designs or products are produced by the application of scientific knowledge to meet specific needs of humans. The field of engineering focuses on these processes.
> Understand that there are four stages of technological design:
- Problem identification
- Solution design (a process or a product)
- Implementation
- Evaluation
> Understand that common requirements within the solution design stage of all technological designs or products include:
- Cost effectiveness or lowest cost for production;
- Time effectiveness or the least amount of time required for production
- Materials that meet specific criteria, such as:
* Solves the problem
* Reasonably priced
* Availability
* Durability
* Not harmful to users or to the environment
* Qualities matching requirements for product or solution
* Manufacturing process matches characteristics of the material
> Understand that benefits need to exceed the risk.
> Understand that there are tradeoffs among the various criteria. For example, the best material for a specific purpose may be too expensive.
> As the various components of this practice have been described elsewhere in terms of defining characteristics, instructional guidance, performance expectations, assessment tasks, etc., that information will not be reproduced here. Details for instructional guidance and considerations can be found for each subdivision of this practice in the support document for each specific practice.
> Understand that there are four stages of technological design:
- Problem identification
- Solution design (a process or a product)
- Implementation
- Evaluation
> Understand that common requirements within the solution design stage of all technological designs or products include:
- Cost effectiveness or lowest cost for production;
- Time effectiveness or the least amount of time required for production
- Materials that meet specific criteria, such as:
* Solves the problem
* Reasonably priced
* Availability
* Durability
* Not harmful to users or to the environment
* Qualities matching requirements for product or solution
* Manufacturing process matches characteristics of the material
> Understand that benefits need to exceed the risk.
> Understand that there are tradeoffs among the various criteria. For example, the best material for a specific purpose may be too expensive.
> As the various components of this practice have been described elsewhere in terms of defining characteristics, instructional guidance, performance expectations, assessment tasks, etc., that information will not be reproduced here. Details for instructional guidance and considerations can be found for each subdivision of this practice in the support document for each specific practice.
Jedi Masters of This Goal Can: |
> Define problems and needs.
> Describe the criteria and limitations of a problem or need. > Design and propose possible solutions based on scientific thinking. > Test designs/solutions. > Analyze test data to determine if the design or solution was successful. > Refine designs if necessary based on the outcome of design tests. > Support claims made about designs based on evidence and scientific reasoning. > Propose and communicate successful designs/solutions. > Analyze and evaluate the designs/solutions of others. |